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“The best way to get approval is not to need it.”

-Hugh MacLeod


The Second Generation in a Family Business: An Agent of Change or Continuator of Family Tradition?

The following paper was written by Izabela Koladkiewicz of Kozminski University and was presented at the 2012 Small Business Institute National Conference.


The objective of this paper is identification of the role of the first and second generation in the process of internationalization of a family business active in the SME sector in Poland. The research method used was the case study. A total of six case studies were developed that demonstrate the experiences of Polish exporters—family companies in the SME sector. Analysis of the developed case studies indicates that it was the first generation that was responsible for making decision and undertaking operations in the first phase. With time, that generation kept only decision–related responsibilities. The second generation tends to continue tradition rather than being an agent of change.


Major expansion in worldwide interest among researchers in family businesses occurred in the nineteen–nineties. This growth with each successive year can be seen in the number of research studies conducted on such companies. Study results appeared in renowned journals and were presented at conferences. (Sharma P., 2004, p. 1). The basis behind such interest lies in the noting of the weight and importance of this type of organization in the national economy. They are dominant among the population of economic entities in many countries—the United States, Japan, and Great Britain, for example (Sharma P., 2004, p. 3, Astrachan J. H. and Shaker M. C., 2006, Goto T., 2006, O’Sullivan M. and Koutsoukis A., 2008).

Analysis of world research demonstrates that questions involving succession (22% of the analyzed pool of 190 articles from the years 1996–2003), company economic results (15%), corporate governance (10%), resources, competitive advantage, and conflicts (6% each), goal and strategy formulation (5%), entrepreneurship and innovation (5%), culture (5%), internationalization (3%), and the rofessionalization of family businesses (2%) are examined most frequently with respect to family businesses (Chrisman, et al., 2003, in Zahra S. A. and Sharma P., 2004, p. 334).

A successive analysis of world research on family businesses conducted in 2010 by J. H. Astrachan (2010) confirms the growing interest in the above perspectives among inquiry by contemporary researchers. However, it should be stressed that in spite of increasing efforts observed in the exploration of the research field encompassing family businesses, the studies continue to be segmental in character in terms of both examined research problems and received results (Zahra S. A. and Sharma P., 2004, p. 333).

(Read Entire Paper)


The Pros and Cons of Going Green

Although the advantages of environmental awareness are regularly extolled in the media, some retailers remain skeptical. Before listing the negatives, we summarize the positives as follows:


• A positive image is established by those embracing the various manifestations of “green.” Consumers in ever-growing numbers are reacting positively to environmentally committed merchants through loyalty and regular patronization.
• The sense of acting ethically is a benefit of going green. In a time when ethics are in question in many aspects of business and other arenas, those who follow eco-friendly principles are likely to be considered ethical business people.
• Operating costs are reduced when, for example, a company employs energy-efficient lighting or charges for disposable plastic shopping bags.
• The quality of life is enhanced by participation in green programs. The ecosystem is protected and enhanced.


• Some of the kinks, as in new eco-sound environment design, have not yet been worked out.
• Manufacturers that subscribe to the use of green materials are limited in number and don’t always offer the essential products of a retailer’s merchandise mix.
• Products that are manufactured in eco-friendly environments are often costlier than those that are traditionally produced, making them too expensive for some customers.

Although from every indication the green concept is on an upturn, it is still too early to proclaim its success for retailers.

Green Resources

We have seen that the green movement is gaining momentum with retailers and the industries that service them. Although many of the larger merchants have departments that study environmental advancements, others do not. Smaller retailers can still obtain valuable information on the topic by logging on to Web sites that offer advice on everything from energy efficiency to eco-friendly products. Some of these are governmental or nonprofit sites, while others are for-profit resources.

Governmental and Nonprofit Web Sites

• The U.S. Department of Energy Green Power Network (www.eere.energy.gov/greenpower) offers information about green power providers, products of a green nature, issues that provide protection to the consumer, and the policies that affect green power markets. It is operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy.
• The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (www.nrel.gov) offers information regarding renewable energy and energy efficiency.
• The World Resources Institute (www.wri.org) is a nonprofit think tank that helps society conduct itself in a manner that protects the environment. Of paramount importance to their goals are reversing the degradation of ecosystems, providing information about natural resources and the environment, and protecting the environment from greenhouse gases.
• The U.S. Green Building Council (www.usgbc.org) help interested parties with the tools they need to leverage green building. It oversees LEED, the accepted benchmark for green building performance.
• The Sustainable Style Foundation (ww.sustainablestyle.org) offers a daily showcase for green products and covers sustainable style information and resources.

For-Profit Resources

• Fabulously Green (http://fabgreen.com) tracks the latest trends, styles, and products in eco-friendly fashion and accessories.
• StyleWillSaveUs (www.stylewillsaveus.com) is an independent digital magazine concerned with stylish, organic, eco-friendly, and sustainable products.
• TreeHugger (www.treehugger.com) is a blog that addresses everything green; it provides the latest updates on green trends.

The resources listed her constitute only a fraction of what is available on eco-friendly matters. Using an Internet search engine and entering such key words as “eco-friendly,” “environmentalism,” or “saving the environment” will yield a wealth of other Web sites for further exploration.

Retailing in the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition
Jay Diamond
Sheri Litt
Pages 183-184
Fairchild Books
Copyright 2010


NASBITE International

2012 marks a special year for NASBITE International who has been assisting trade professionals, educators, and government in bridging the gap in trade education and promotion for 25 years! Portland, Oregon, “The City of Roses” will be a memorable location. As the second largest city in the Pacific Northwest, it is known for its scenic beauty, sustainable business focus, and lively music scene. The conference will be held at the Nines Hotel. Rooms are still available at the Nines on April 20 and 21. For more information, click here.

ICSB 2012 Public Agencies Forum

How can government bodies – such as policy departments, advisory services, regulators and service agencies – develop the most effective means of engagement, communication and information sharing with small businesses?

The Forum will explore the many differentways that agencies have done this, using international examples from across the world and to also share the findings of research activities which can shed some light on how such engagement mightbe more effectively tailored in future.

The event will be held in conjuction with the ICSB 2012 conference June 14th in Wellington Town Hall, New Zealand. For more information, click here.

Southern Management Association

It’s time to start planning for the Southern Management Association’s 2012 Annual Meeting. The SMA meeting will take place October 30-November 3, 2012 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The meeting will be held at the Westin Beach Resort and Spa. The hotel’s waterfront location offers access to miles of beautiful white beaches, but is also close to shops, entertainment, and business centers. For more information, click here.

Flip the Switch Workshop

Are you frustrated with technology distractions in the classroom? On June 1st in Philadelphia, PA we’ll show how to hijack these distracting mobile devices to engage with students at a deeper level and bring them back into the learning conversation. For more information, click here.


International Council for Small Business will be holding its International World Conference during June 10-13, 2012 in Wellington, New Zealand. For more information, click here.


Who: International Academy of Business and Economics
What: IABE-2012 Venice- Summer Conference
Where: Venice, Italy
When: June 8-10, 2012
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Who: SHSU Department of General Business and Finance
What: Fourth Annual General Business Conference
Where: Huntsville, TX
When: April 13-14, 2012
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Flip the Switch
Who: Cornell University’s Deborah Streeter
What: Flip the Switch workshop
Where: Philadelphia, PA
When: June 1st, 2012

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Who: General Business Conference
What: 2012 4th Annual Conference
Where: Huntsville, Texas (North of Houston)
When: April 13-14, 2012

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Who: Education for Sustainability
What: International Greening Education Event
Where: Karlsruhe, Germany
When: Oct 10-12, 2012

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Who: Hawaii International Conference
What: 12th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business
Where: Waikiki Beach Marriott Resort and Spa, Honolulu, Hawaii
When: May 24-27, 2012
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Who: International Council for Small Business
What: ICSB World Conference 2012
Where: Wellington, New Zealand
When: June 10-13, 2012

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Who: Gateway Entrepreneurship Research Conference
What: 23rd Gateway Entrepreneurship Research Conference
Where: St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri
When: April 20-22, 2012
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Who: International Council for Small Business
What: 3rd Annual ICSB Conference
Where: Washington, D.C.
When: Oct. 11-13, 2012
Submission Deadlines: July 1st, 2012
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Who: National Business and Economics Society
What: 14th Annual Conference
Where: Herradura, Costa Rica
When: March 6-9, 2013
Submission Deadlines: July 1st, 2012
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Who: American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences
What: 15th International Conference
Where: Paris, France
When: June 21-24, 2012
Submission Deadlines: May 31, 2012
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Who: Business and Social Sciences
What: Annual Paris Conference on “Business and Social Sciences”
Where: Paris, France
When: July 12-13, 2012
Submission Deadlines: June 4, 2012
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Who: International Business Research
What: 17th International Business Research Conference
Where: Toronto, Canada
When: Jun 7 – 8, 2012
Submission Deadlines: May 11, 2012
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Who: American Society for Competitiveness
What: 23rd Annual Conference
Where: Washington D.C. area
When: October 25-27, 2012
Submission Deadlines: June 17, 2012
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Who: Management Marketing Association
What: 17th Annual MMA Fall Educators’ Conference
Where: Minneapolis, MN
When: Sept 19-21, 2012
Submission Deadlines: June 8, 2012
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Main Office Phone: (501) 450-5300

Don B. Bradley III, Executive Director of SBANC & Professor of Marketing - Direct Phone: (501) 450-5345

Matt Yancey, Development Intern

Raven Ambers, Development Intern

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Small Business Advancement National Center - University of Central Arkansas
College of Business Administration - UCA Box 5018 201 Donaghey Avenue
Conway, AR 72035-0001 - Phone (501) 450-5300 - FAX (501) 450-5360